July 28, 2014

0 Prevalence, incidence and predictive factors for hand eczema in young adults - a follow-up study

Research article

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Open AccessArne Johannisson1*Ann Pontén23 and Åke Svensson45

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BMC Dermatology 2013, 13:14  doi:10.1186/1471-5945-13-14
Published: 29 October 2013



Hand eczema is common in the general population and affects women twice as often as men. It is also the most frequent occupational skin disease. The economic consequences are considerable for society and for the affected individuals.


To investigate the prevalence and incidence of hand eczema and to evaluate risk factors for development of hand eczema in young adults. Subjects and methods; This is a prospective follow-up study of 2,403 young adults, 16 – 19 years old in 1995 and aged 29 – 32 years, 13 years later, in 2008. They completed a postal questionnaire that included questions regarding one-year prevalence of hand eczema, childhood eczema, asthma, rhino-conjunctivitis and factors considered to affect hand eczema such as hand-washing, washing and cleaning, cooking, taking care of small children and usage of moisturisers. These factors were evaluated with the multinominal logistic regression analysis.


The one-year prevalence of hand eczema was 15.8% (females 20.3% and males 10.0%, p < 0.001). The incidence was 11.6 cases per 1000 person-years (females 14.3 and males 5.2, p < 0.001). Childhood eczema was the most important risk factor for hand eczema. The odds ratios were 13.17 when having hand eczema 1995 and 2008 compared to 5.17 in 2008 (p < 0.001). A high frequency of hand washing was important in predicting hand eczema only when having 1-year prevalence 2008, OR 1.02 (p = 0.038).


After 13 years an increased 1-year prevalence of hand eczema was found. The significant risk factors for hand eczema changed over time from endogenous to exogenous factors.
Hand eczema; Childhood eczema; Prevalence; Incidence; Cohort; Gender; Skin care; Hand-wash 

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0 Decreased Sudomotor Function is Involved in the Formation of Atopic Eczema in the Cubital Fossa



Aya Takahashi, Hiroyuki Murota, Saki Matsui, Akiko Kijima, Shun Kitaba, Jeong-Beom Lee and Ichiro Katayama [About this authors]
Background: Eczema in the cubital fossa, which is susceptible to sweat, is frequently observed in atopic dermatitis (AD). However, there has been no direct evidence that sweating causes eczema in the cubital fossa.
Methods: To investigate this issue, axon reflex-mediated sweating volume (AXR) and skin barrier function in the cubital fossa were measured in subjects with AD and in healthy volunteers, and were applied to clinical feature of the cubital fossa.
Results: AXR in the cubital fossa decreased in AD subjects; it positively correlated only with water-holding capacity in healthy subjects but not in patients with in AD. Furthermore, AD subjects with lichenoid eczema and either prurigo or papules over the cubital fossa showed extremely decreased AXR.
Conclusions: These results suggest that decreased sweating is a major source of water in the stratum corneum, and decreased sudomotor function may be involved in both the cause and aggravation of representative atopic eczema in the cubital fossa.
atopic dermatitis, exacerbation, homeostasis, skin barrier function, sweating
Received: 15 February 2013.
Accepted: 29 May 2013.
Allergology International 2013; 62: 473-478

0 Atopic dermatitis: natural history, diagnosis, and treatment

ISRN Allergy
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 354250, 7 pages
Review Article
Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark
Received 24 February 2014; Accepted 18 March 2014; Published 2 April 2014
Academic Editors: C. Pereira and Z. Zhu
Copyright © 2014 Simon Francis Thomsen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease with early onset and with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 20%. The aetiology of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but the recent discovery of filaggrin mutations holds promise that the progression of atopic dermatitis to asthma in later childhood may be halted. Atopic dermatitis is not always easily manageable and every physician should be familiar with the fundamental aspects of treatment. This paper gives an overview of the natural history, clinical features, and treatment of atopic dermatitis.

0 Regulation of the gut microbiota by the mucosal immune system in mice

  1. Naohiro Inohara
+Author Affiliations
  1. Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150W. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  1. Correspondence to: N. Inohara; E-mail: ino@umich.edu
  • Received April 7, 2014.
  • Accepted April 28, 2014.


The benefits of commensal bacteria to the health of the host have been well documented, such as providing stimulation to potentiate host immune responses, generation of useful metabolites, and direct competition with pathogens. However, the ability of the host immune system to control the microbiota remains less well understood. Recent microbiota analyses in mouse models have revealed detailed structures and diversities of microbiota at different sites of the digestive tract in mouse populations. The contradictory findings of previous studies on the role of host immune responses in overall microbiota composition are likely attributable to the high β-diversity in mouse populations as well as technical limitations of the methods to analyze microbiota. The host employs multiple systems to strictly regulate their interactions with the microbiota. A spatial segregation between the host and microbiota is achieved with the mucosal epithelium, which is further fortified with a mucus layer on the luminal side and Paneth cells that produce antimicrobial peptides. When commensal bacteria or pathogens breach the epithelial barrier and translocate to peripheral tissues, the host immune system is activated to eliminate them. Defective segregation and tissue elimination of commensals result in exaggerated inflammatory responses and possibly death of the host. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of mouse microbiota, its common features with human microbiota, the technologies utilized to analyze microbiota, and finally the challenges faced to delineate the role of host immune responses in the composition of the luminal microbiota.

This Article

  1. Int. Immunol.doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxu049
  1. All Versions of this Article:
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0 Differential serum protein markers and clinical severity of asthma

Authors Meyer N, Nuss SJ, Rothe T, Siebenhüner A, Akdis CA, Menz G
Published Date April 2014  Journal of Asthma and Allergy  Volume 2014:7 Pages 67—75
Received 3 September 2013Accepted 29 October 2013, Published 25 April 2014
Norbert Meyer,1,2 Sarah Janine Nuss,1 Thomas Rothe,1 Alexander Siebenhüner,1 Cezmi A Akdis,2Günter Menz1

1Hochgebirgsklinik Davos, Davos-Wolfgang, Switzerland; 2Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), Davos Platz, Switzerland

Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by different clinical phenotypes and the involvement of multiple inflammatory pathways. During airway inflammation, many cytokines and chemokines are released and some are detectable in the sera.
Objective: Serum chemokines and cytokines, involved in airway inflammation in asthma patients, were investigated.
Methods: A total of 191 asthma patients were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis, including the following parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) serum levels, blood eosinophils, Junipers asthma symptom score, and the change in FEV1, ECP serum levels, and blood eosinophils after 3 weeks of asthma therapy. Serum proteins were measured by multiplex analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the validity of serum proteins for discriminating between asthma clusters.
Results: Classification of asthma patients identified one cluster with high ECP serum levels, increased blood eosinophils, low FEV1 values, and good FEV1 improvement in response to asthma therapy (n=60) and one cluster with low ECP serum levels, low numbers of blood eosinophils, higher FEV1 values, and no FEV1 improvement in response to asthma therapy (n=131). Serum interleukin (IL)-8, eotaxin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK), growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly different between the two clusters of asthma patients. ROC analysis for serum proteins calculated a sensitivity of 55.9% and specificity of 75.8% for discriminating between them.
Conclusion: Serum cytokine and chemokine levels might be predictors for the severity of asthmatic inflammation, asthma control, and response to therapy, and therefore might be useful for treatment optimization.

Keywords: asthma, cluster, phenotype, serum cytokines
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Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at:http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php

0 Clinical effectiveness and safety of montelukast in asthma. What are the conclusions from clinical trials and meta-analyses?

Authors Hon KLE, Leung TF, Leung AKC
Published Date  Drug Design, Development and Therapy » Volume 2014:8 Pages 839—850
Received 30 January 2014Accepted 26 March 2014, Published 26 June 2014
Kam Lun Ellis Hon,1 Ting Fan Leung,1 Alexander KC Leung2
1Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong; 2Department of Pediatrics, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

Abstract: Asthma is a common childhood atopic disease associated with chronicity and impaired quality of life. As there is no cure for this disease, treatment relies on avoidance of triggers such as food and aeroallergens, the use of inhaled bronchodilators/corticosteroids and antiallergic or immunomodulating therapies. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and bronchodilators have been the mainstay. However, in Asia, myths and fallacies regarding Western medicine and corticosteroids are prevalent and lead to nonadherence to treatment. Also, use of traditional and proprietary herbal medicines is popular. In the past decades, a novel class of nonsteroidal immunomodulating montelukasts has become available. This article reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and clinical efficacy of these medications. A number of randomized and controlled trials have been performed over the years. The majority of studies confirm the usefulness of montelukast as monotherapy and add-on therapy to ICS in mild to moderate childhood asthma across all age groups. ICSs are generally superior to montelukasts for asthma management. However, montelukast has a place in the treatment of young children with viral-triggered wheezing diseases, exercise-induced asthma, and in children whose parents are steroid-phobic and find ICS unacceptable.

Keywords: cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, inhaled corticosteroid, randomized control trial, meta analysis
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Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at:http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php

July 27, 2014

0 Interleukin-17 Producing T Cells could be a Marker for Patients with Allergic Rhinitis


Vanya Tsvetkova-Vicheva PhD, Emiliana Konova PhD, Tcvetan Lukanov PhD, Svetla Gecheva MD, Angelika Velkova PhD Dsc and Regina Komsa-Penkova PhD

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IMAJ 2014: 16: June: 358-362
 Background: Interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-producing CD4+T helper cells have been implicated in allergic inflammation; however, the role of IL-17A in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients with different degrees of atopy and airway reactivity to methacholine (Mch) has not been examined.

Objectives: To explore IL-17A-producing CD3+CD4+T cells in peripheral blood of patients with persistent AR and assess the degree of atopy, eosinophil count (Eo count), and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) to methacholine.

Methods: The study involved 61 patients and 30 controls. The percentage of CD3+CD4+IL-17A+T cells in peripheral blood was measured by flow cytometry, bronchial challenges with Mch were performed, as was skin prick tests with standard inhalant allergens, and Eo count was measured. Atopic status was determined by the number of positive SPT results and wheal mean diameter.

Results: A statistically significant difference in Th17 cell percentage was found in the AR and control groups (2.59 ± 1.32% and 1.24 ± 0.22% respectively, = 0.001). Forty-one patients (67.2%) were polysensitized to indoor and outdoor allergens, while 20 (32.8%) had positive skin prick tests to indoor allergens. CD4+T cellswere significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group (2.91 ± 1.5% versus 1.91 ± 0.62%,= 0.005), as was Eo count (4.48 ± 2.13 vs. 2.32 ± 1.83) (= 0.0001). Forty-one in the AR group (67%) and 7 (23%) in the control group were Mch-positive (= 0.001). The percentage of IL-17A-producing CD4+T cells was significantly higher in males compared to females (3.15 ± 1.8% versus 2.31 ± 0.9%, P = 0.02)

Conclusions: Polysensitized AR patients exhibited higher IL-17A-producing CD4+T cell levels and eosinophil counts. Male patients displayed a higher frequency of IL-17A-producing T cells. 

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