April 16, 2015

Mold allergens in respiratory allergy: from structure to therapy.


Allergic reactions to fungi were described 300 years ago, but the importance of allergy to fungi has been underestimated for a long time. Allergens from fungi mainly cause respiratory and skin symptoms in sensitized patients. In this review, we will focus on fungi and fungal allergens involved in respiratory forms of allergy, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma.

Associations between the 17q21 region and allergic rhinitis in 5 birth cohorts

The high heritability and comorbidity between allergic rhinitis and asthma suggest common etiologies and genetic susceptibility loci. Among the most robust signals for asthma is the chromosomal locus 17q21.1 Studies that examined whether this strong asthma locus is also associated with allergic rhinitis have yielded conflicting results. A recent large genome-wide association study (GWAS)2 and a candidate gene study3 identified associations between genetic variants at the 17q21 locus and allergic rhinitis, in contrast to null findings in previous GWASs on allergic rhinitis4,5 and self-reported allergy.

April 15, 2015

New challenges in modern vaccinology


Mireille Centlivre12 and Béhazine Combadière12*

Vaccination has been a major advance for health care, allowing eradication or reduction of incidence and mortality of various infectious diseases. However, there are major pathogens, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or the causative agent of malaria, for which classical vaccination approaches have failed, therefore requiring new vaccination strategies. The development of new vaccine strategies relies on the ability to identify the challenges posed by these pathogens.

Sublingual or subcutaneous immunotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinitis: an indirect analysis of efficacy, safety and cost

Dranitsaris G, Ellis AK

The standard of preventive care for poorly controlled seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR) is subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with allergen extracts, administered in a physician's office. As an alternative to SCIT, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is now an option for patients with seasonal AR.

Bilastine: new insight into antihistamine treatment


Open Access

Erminia Ridolo1*Marcello Montagni1Laura Bonzano1Cristoforo Incorvaia2 and Giorgio Walter Canonica3

Bilastine is a new second generation H1-antihistamine recently approved for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic urticaria (CU). Bilastine epitomizes the evolution of research on antihistamines concerning both efficacy and safety.

April 11, 2015

Vaccination in children with allergy to non active vaccine components


Highly Accessed

Open AccessFabrizio Franceschini1Paolo Bottau2Silvia Caimmi3Giuseppe Crisafulli4Liotti Lucia5Diego Peroni6Francesca Saretta7Mario Vernich8Carlotta Povesi Dascola9 and Carlo Caffarelli10*

Childhood immunisation is one of the greatest public health successes of the last century. Vaccines contain an active component (the antigen) which induces the immune response. They may also contain additional components such as preservatives, additives, adjuvants and traces of other substances.

Pollen Allergies in Humans and their Dogs, Cats and Horses: Differences and Similarities


Open Access

Erika Jensen-Jarolim1*Lukas Einhorn1Ina Herrmann2Johann G Thalhammer2 and Lucia Panakova2

Both humans and their most important domestic animals harbor IgE and a similar IgE receptor repertoire and expression pattern. The same cell types are also involved in the triggering or regulation of allergies, such as mast cells, eosinophils or T-regulatory cells. Translational clinical studies in domestic animals could therefore help cure animal allergies and at the same time gather knowledge relevant to human patients.

April 9, 2015

A laboratory test based on determination of cytokine profiles: a promising assay to identify exposition to contact allergens and predict the clinical outcome in occupational allergic contact dermatitis

Methodology article
Highly AccessedValentina Bordignon1*Francesca Palamara2Giorgia Altomonte2Isabella Sperduti3Mario Pietravalle1Claudia Cavallotti4Paola Cordiali-Fei1Maria Pia Fuggetta5Antonio Cristaudo2 and Fabrizio Ensoli1

Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main allergen causing adverse reactions to hair dyes and a frequent cause of occupational-related skin sensitization among hairdressers and beauticians. The immunologic mechanism of the disease relies on the production of inflammatory cytokines by allergen-specific T cells, while regulatory T cells are thought to down-modulate the allergic response. This study was aimed at investigating the expression of effector or regulatory cytokines in exposed subjects in order to verify whether different cytokine profiles might predict distinct clinical outcomes.

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